Jahangir

Jahangir (A.D.1605 1627)

Salim was crowned at Agra in 1605 assuming the title of Nuruddin Muhammad Jahangir. He symbolized his accession by issuing a proclamation of his policy embodied In "Twelve Edicts' and recorded in the opening pages of his memoirs. Tuzuki-JahangirI (in Persian). He mostly lived in Lahore which he adorned with gardens and buildings.

Nur-Jahan:

The most important event in Jahangir’s life was his marriage to Mehr-un Nisa, the widow of Sher Afghani in 1611. The title of Nur Jahan was conferred on her. She had great influence on Jahangir’s life, as she was given the status of Padshah Begum, coins were struck in her name and all royal farmans beared her name. She got high positions for her father (Itmad-ud daulah), and her brother (Asaf Khan). She married Asaf’s daughter, Mumtaz Mahal to Khurram (later, Shahjahan). This cemented the alliance between Nurjahan, her father, Asaf Khan and Khurram. This alliance practically ruled the empire for 10 years.

Conquests of Jahangir:

Sikh Guru and Jahangir: In 1606, Jahangir suppressed the rebellion of his son Khusro and the prince was imprisoned. The fifth Sikh Guru Arjun Dev was sentenced to death after 5 days of torture for his blessing to the rebel prince. On the refusal to pay the fine, Guru Arjun’s son Guru Hargovind was sent to fort of Gwalior where he remained as prisoner till 1611.

The Afghans: The Afghans were defeated by the Mughals in 1612 and their leader Usman Khan died. Thus the political powers of the Afghans finally came to an end. 

The Ranas of Mewar: Rana Amar Singh(son of Maharana Pratap) of Mewar submitted before Jahangir in 1615. But the Rana himself was exempted from personal attendance at Court. Rana's son Karan Singh was made a mansabdar in the Mughal Court.

The South: Alarmed at Shah Jahan’s advance towards Daulatabad. Malik Amber appealed for peace (1621). He had to surrender all the territories which he had seized and had to pay 18 lakh rupees.

The North West: Qandhar was occupied from Shah Abbas of Persia in 1622.

  • Jahangir was a lover of art, literature and particularly painting.
  • His greatest failure was the loss of Kandahar to Persia in 1622.
  • He married ‘Nur Jahan’ originally known as Mihr-ul-Nisa.
  • Had a chain of justice outside his palace in Agra (called Zanzir-i Adil).
  • He also laid a number of gardens, such as the Shalimar and Nishat gardens in Kashmir.
  • Captain Hawkins (1608-11) and Sir Thomas Roe(1615-1619) visited his court. Sir Thomas Roe granted a firman by prince Khurram, which gave the English reasonable facilities for trade. Due to the efforts of Sir Thomas Roe English factories were established at Surat and some other places. John Hawkins resided at Agra for two years.  The emperor called him English Khan.
  • Pietra Valle, famous Italian traveler came during his reign.
  • Tobaco growing started during his reign. It was brought by the Portuguese.

 


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