Indian Rivers

The river system of India can be divided into four: 
    l. The Himalayan rivers
    2. Peninsular rivers
    3. Coastal rivers
    4. Rivers of the inland drainage basin.
All rivers are east-flowing except the Narmada and the Tapti which are west-flowing.

The Himalayan rivers are perennial. During the monsoon, the Himalayas receive very heavy rainfall and the rivers often caused floods. During summer the rivers are snowfed The peninsular rivers are generally rain-fed. 
Ganga basin carries water to one quarter of the total area of the country. The Ganga is joined by a number of Himalayan rivers including the Yamuna, Ghaghra, Gomti, Gandak and Kosi. The Godavari in the southern peninsula has the second largest river basin in the country covering 10% of the area of India. The Krishna and the Mahanadi basins are the second and third largest in the peninsula respectively. The basins of the Narmada and of the Cauvery are of about the same size. The Tapti in the north and the Pennar in the south are small and agriculturally important. 

Main Rivers of India:

The Indus- After originating from the northern slopes of the Kailash range (Tibet) flows north-westwards through Tibet and Ladakh. It has a length of 2900 km from its source to the Arabian sea.

The Jhelum: It flows northward from its source to Wular lake and further down south-westwards till it enters  gorge lies between Baramulla and Muzaffarabad. Kishanganga its right bank tributary, joins it at Muzaffarabad. Its length is 400 km.

The Chenab: The Chenab ofJammu & Kashmir is known as Chandrabhanga in Himachan Pradesh. The Chandrabhanga ï¬‚ows north-westwards and runs parallel to the Pir Panial range for some distance. Its length is 1180km.

Ravi: Rohtang pass is its source. From its origin it flows to the north-west and joins the Chenab in Pakisthan. Its length is 720 km.

The Beas: Emerges from a place known as Beaskund, near the Rohtang pass. Its valley is known as Kulu Valley. It joins Sutlej near Harike after flowing a distance if 615km.

The Sutlej: Orginates from Rakas lake connected with Manasarovar Lake by a stream. Bhakhra Dam is constructed across this river. Its length in India is 1050 km.

The Luni: Its source lies near Ajmer in the Aravalli Range. It flows southward and falls Into Rann of Kutch. The Bandi, the Sukri and the Jawai are its important left bank tributaries.

The Mahi: Having its source in Udaipur district in the southern Aravalli range pours its water into the Gulf of Cambay through an estuary.

The Narmada: Emerges from the Aniarkantak plateau in Madhya Pradesh, flows towards the west. Near Jabalpur it
makes a waterfall about l0 meters high and flows in a narrow gorge about 3 km long, which is known as "Marble Rocks". It widens below Broach and makes an estuary. which enters the Gulf of Cambay. Its length is 1290 km.

The Tapti: Rises in Betul district in the Satpura range and flows westward. Ater flowing Satpuni
It flows in between Satpura range range, turns to the south, after emerging out of the Bhuranpur Gap. Its length is 700 km long.

The Drainage systems falling into the Bay of Bengal:

The Ganga is the main river with numerous tributaries. The Ram Ganga, The Ghaghara, the Gandak and the Kosi are its major left bank tributaries. Yamuna and the Son
 are its major right bank tributaries.

 The Ganga: Rises from the Gangotri glacier at the height of 5l63 metre in Uttaranchal. It is called Bhagirathi above Dev Prayag and Ganga below this town. The Alaknanda an important affluent joints it at Dev Prayag. At Haridwar it leaves the Himalayas and enters the plain below this town. Bhagirathi-Hooghly is the western most distributary of the Ganga and it takes off from the right bank of this river in Murshidabad district. The Hooglly is a tidal river and is navigable below Kolkata. The total length of Ganga is about 2510 km. The Ganga is the most Sacrosanct river of India. The most important pilgrimage centres namely Haridwar, Allahabad, Varanasi are situated on the bank of this river.

The Yammuna: The right bank tributary of Ganga, rises at Yamunotri glacier, situated in western slope of Banderpoonch. The Yamuna flows towards the south upto Agra and farther down towards the south-east direction till it joins the Ganga at Allahabad. Chambal, Sind, Betwa and Ken are its important tributaries and join it at its right bank. The length of the Yamuna from its source upto Allahabad is l300 km.

The Chambal: Rises near Mhow in the Vindhyan range (Janapav 616 metre height) and flows towards the north
generally in a gorge upto Kota. After reaching Pinhat it turns to the east and runs nearly parallel to Yamuna. Chambal joins Yamuna near Etawah. It is 1060 km long. Banas is an important left bank tributary of Chambal. Sind, Betwa and Ken are its other tributaries. 

The Banas: Rises in the southern part of Aravalli Range and flows to the north-east direction. It joins the Chambalal a point about 30 km to the east of Sawai Madhopur.

The Sone: It originates from Amarkantak plateau. It merges into Ganga near Ram Nagar. It is 780 km long.

The Ram Ganga: Rises in the Great Himalayas (near Garhwal of Uttaranchal) and enters the Ganga plain near Kalagarh (Bijnor). River Kho joins it from the right bank. It merges with Ganga near Kannauj. Its lengthis 600 km.

The Sarda: It rises from Milap glacier, from the Great-Himalayas. It is known by various names.

The Ghaghera: Originates from Bharchachuga glacier Rakchash-Tal in Nepal. After crossing the Siwalik ranges; Chok a tributary of Sarda joins it near Baharampur. The river is large and is generally chocked with Silt. Its length is 1180 km.

The Rapti: Originates from Rukunkot Nepal, flows south-west then south. Passing through Bahraich, Gonda and Gorakhpur joins Ghaghera near Bahraj.

The Gandak: Known as Saligrami in Nepal and Naraini in plain, rises near Sino-Nepal boundary and drains in central part of Nepal and Separates the boundary of Uttarpradesh and Bihar. It joins Ganga at Sonpur.

The Gomathi: Originates from the height of 200 mete in Philibit district.It joins Ganges at Gazipur.

The Kosi: A left bank tributary of Ganga is a collective name of seven rivers Milamchi, Bhotia, Likhu,  Dudkh Kosi, Arun and Tambur. Its total length is 730 km. The Kosi joins Ganga at Karagola.

The Betwa: It originates near Kumra Gaon, (District Raisen-MP) from Vindhyan ranges flowing northward of Vidisha and Guna districts of Madhya Pradesh enters Jhansi district of Uttar Pradesh. It joins Yamuna near Hamirpur. Its total length is 480 km.

The Mahanadi: It is an important river of Orissa and the south-eastern part ofMadhya Pradesh. The river raises in Sihawa range, fringing the southern part of Chattisgarh plain. The upper Mahanadi flows in the Chattisgarh plain. Its total length is 890 km.

The Chhipra: Originates from Kakri-Bardi range in Indore district, after flowing Devas and Ujjain, it merges with Chambal.

Tawa: Originates from Mahadeo hill of Panchmarhi and joins Narmada.

Brahmaputra: It raised from Mansarovar lake at height of 5150 meters. In Tibet it runs parallel to the Himalayas for about 1200 km. Here it is known as Tsangpo. It enters into the Assam valley, where it is called the
Brahmaputra. It flows to the west upto Dhubri and further below it runs to the south and enters Bangladesh. It is navigable for about 1280 km from the Bay of Bengal to Dibrugarh. Its local length is 2900 km which is more that of Ganga by 400 km.

The Krishna: The river takes its rise in a place near Mahabaleshwar in Western Ghats and flows through Sathara and Sangli districts of Maharashtra, northern Karnataka and Southern Andhra Pradesh States. The Bhima and Tungabhadra are its important tributaries. Its length is 1290km long.

The Cauvery: It is known as the “Ganga of South India". It rises in the Brahmagiri Hill(Coorg district) in the western ghats and flows generally eastwards in Karnataka State. The Hemavati, and the Shimsha are its left bank tributaries and Kabini, the Bhavani, the Nozil and the Arawalli its right bank tributaries. The river has two islands namely Srirangapatnam and Shivasamudram. It is 760 km long.

The Pennar: Orginates in Kolar district(Karnataka), its chief tributaries are Chittravati. It flows through at gorge of Cudappah near Chandikota(Cudappah district) and enters the sea near town of Nellore.


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