Indian Climate and Rainfall

The Indian Meteorological Department  recognises the below four seasons
(i) Winter (December - March)
(ii) Summer (April - May)
(iii) Monsoon (June - September)
(iv) Season of retreating south-west monsoon (October - November)
India situated in Northern hemisphere, the tropic of cancer passes through the middle part of the country. As a result,the southern half of the country has a tropical climate.

The Southern part of the country is influenced by the sea (Arabian, Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean). The Tropical monsoon type climate of the country is influenced by
(i) Latitude
(ii) Nearness to the sea
(iii) Altitude
(iv) Direction of prevailing winds
(v) Direction of mountain ranges
(vi) Character of soil.
The annual rainfall of India is 120 cm, a slightly more than the global mean of 99 cm. The highest normal annual rainfall(1187cm) in the world has been recorded in Mawsynram(Meghalaya) while the western part of Jaisalmer district (Rajasthan) is one of the driest part of the world recording about 9 cm of rainfall in a year.

Depending upon the total annual rainfall, the country can be divided into below five major regions.
Region of Very Low rainfall —(less than 30 cm in a year)
Region of Low Rainfall — (30 to 60 cm in a year)
Region of Medium Rainfall — (60 to 100 cm in a year)
Region of high Rainfall — (100 to 200 cm in a year)
Region of Very High Rainfall — (about 200 cm a year)

Climate and Rainfall:

India has varied temperatures. While Darjeeling and Simla have the lowest temperatures between 15.7°C and l6.9°C. Nagpur registers 35.5°C. Rainfall is erratic. Areas like West Coast, Bengal, Assam, etc.get heaviest rain of above 200 cm annually. Mumbai, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, etc. receive 100 to 200 cm and Chennai, North Western Deccan and upper Gangetic Plain have 50 to 100 cm. The Thar Desert receives only 10 cm of rainfall. While the rainy season in most parts of the country is from June to September, in Tamilnadu & Andhra Prradesh, it is during October-December.

The temperature in the south seldom drops below 20°C. The south-east gets most of its rain between October and December and by March, temperature rises throughout the country. In June, 38°C-43°C is common in the north. The lowest average temperature is 13°C in the Himalayan hill stations of Darjeeling and Simla. Mumbai on the west coast has an annual mean of temperature of 28°C and Chennai a mean temperature of 29°C. 

Coldest Parts

The Trans Himalayan and Greater-Himalayan regions. Dras and Kargil of Ladakh region are the coldest
regions in the country where the temperature falls below - 40°C. This is due to the distance from the equator as well as altitude.

Hottest parts:

In west Rajasthan at Barmer. where temperature shoots upto 50°C ( 122°F) during daytime. This is due to its distance from Sea, absence of rainfall and dry and sandy soil which gets heated up. Rajkot in Gujarat averages a temperature of 33°C.

Wettest parts:

Cherrapunji in Meghalaya is the wettest place in India. In fact Mawsynram, 10 km from Cherrapunji receives maximum amount of rainfall in the world-as high as 1080 cm.
It is due to its funnel shaped location surrounded by the Khasi, Garo and Jaintia hills.

Driest Part:

Jaisalmer in western Rajasthan is the driest place which receives the lowest rainfall (less than I0 cm). It is due to its distance from the monsoon the Bay of Bengal and location in the sub-tropical high pressure belts.

The Monsoons:

India gets rains by South West Monsoon and North East Monsoon. The South West Monsoon brings more rain. North East Monsoon is Shorter in duration and comes after South West Monsoon. Tamilnadu & Andhra Pradesh receives heavy rain due to North East monsoon.

(i) The South-West Monsoon(June/September):

The south-west monsoon contributes 86% of the total rain in India. Starts on the west coast around beginning of June and continues till September. The first rain decreases westwards in the northern plains giving an average rainfall of Kolkatta l19 Cm, Patna 105 cm,  Allahabad 76 cm, Delhi 56 cm I

(ii) The North-East Monsoon(November/December):

The north-east monsoon is comparatively a minor monsoon confined to a smaller area of the country particularly the east coast. This is also called Winter Monsoon and it is Tamil Nadu‘s major monsoon giving about 45 cm of rainfall in November/December as compared to 38 cm in the four months of the summer.

Cause of Rainfall in India:

During the hot summer the land mass absorbs It great amount of heat causing the temperature to rise, thereby creating excessive low pressure. It causes winds (monsoon) to blow towards India front the seas which have a comparatively high pressure and being moisture-laden being rainfall to the hilly areas of the country.

Regions of Heavy Rainfall (above 20/) cm)

(i) Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Sikkim and northern part of West Bengal-being hilly and in the direct path
of the Monsoon winds blowing in from the Bay of Bengal.
(ii) The Western Ghats—Rain-bearing clouds blow in from the Arabian Sea towards the Western Ghats.
(iii) The Himalayan slopes

Regions of Scanty Rainfall(below 50 cm):

(i) Kutch and West Rajasthan
(ii) Southern Haryana, south-east Punjab and Ladakh

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