British rule in India

The Regulating Act, 1773: The purpose of the Act was to legalise the working Constitution of the East India Company. Governor-General Warren Hastings was appointed.

Pitt’s India Act, 1784: It ensured the centralisation of the company under the British Parliament.

Permanent Settlement of Bengal, 1793: It was carried out by Cornvallis. It was an important revenue system. The settlement brought the revenue administration on scientific lines.

Subsidiary Alliance system of Wellesley: It paved the way for stationing of British troops in the territories of native princes. The princes had to pay for the stationing of troops. The troops took care of the defence of the territories.

Doctrine of Lapse: Lord Dalhousie’s diplomatic Doctrine of Lapse laid down that on the death of a prince without direct descendants, the British will take over the territories of princes after declaring the dominion of the deceased an “lapsed" to the sovereign power by total failure of their natural heir. It abolished the adoption of heirs also.

First War of Indian Independence: Dubbed by the British historians as Sepoy Mutiny, the First War of Indian Independence was a popular movement. It broke out in 1857. The increasing modernisation was construed by the Indian people as encroachment of their culture and civilisation. Jhansi Rani, Nana Sahib and others participated In the movement.  It did not affect South India. Because of lack of cohesion and popular support, it failed.  However, the rule of East India Company ended and the Indian administration was brought under the direct control of the Queen by Queen Victoria’s Proclamation in 1858. 

 Indian Councils Act, 1861: It brought many administrative changes. Non-official Indians were taken in the Executive Council, the Government departments were decentralised and the portfolio system was introduced.  The Act sought to brIdge the gap between rulers and the ruled.

Ilbert Bill, 1883: Prepared by C.P.Ilbert, the law member of the Viceroyalty of Lord Ripon sought to abolish "Judicial disqualification based on race distinction". The previous Criminal Procedure Code of 1873 had a clause that no Magistrate or Sessions Judge could try a European-British subject unless he himself was a European by birth. 

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