Warren Hastings (1772-85)
Introduced Quinquennial settlement of land revenue in 1772 farming out lands to the highest bidder.
Later on he reversed annual to settlement (1777) on the basis of open auction to the highest bidder.
Made appointments of Collectors and other Revenue officials. Codified Hindu and Muslim laws.
Trial of Nand Kumar and his judicial murder in 1775.
Foundation of Asiatic Society of Bengal with the help of William Jones in 1784.
Dual Government was abolished
Associated with the Chait Singh (Banaras Raj) Affair 1778.
Alter his return to England in 1785, impeachment proceedings were initiated against him in the house of lords.
But after a long trial of 7 years he was eventually acquitted.
Dual Government was abolished by him in 1772.
Code of Gentoo Laws
In 1776, Manu's law was translated into English as Code of Gentoo Laws.
Creation of laws
In 1791, William Jones and Colebrook prepared Digest of Hindu Laws.
Fatwa-i-Alamgiri was also translated in 1772, created a Diwani and Faujdari Adalat.
The Regulating Act 1773, appointed him the first Governor General along with four counciIors-Clavering. Francis, Monson and Barwell.
First Anglo Maratha War took place.
Wilkins translated Gila and Hitopadesa in English. In 1780, James August Hickey started a weekly paper called Bengal Gazette or Calcutta General Advertiser.
Syed Ghulam Hussain wrote Siyar-uI-Mutqherin.
Lord Cornwallis (1786-93)
In 1791.Sanskrit College in Benaras, founded by Jonathan Duncan.
The Permanent Settlement introduced in 1793. The police System was Introduced.
The district Faujdari Adalats presided over abolished and in their place four Circuit Courts were established presided by European covenanted servants.
The Sadr Nizamat Adalat also replaced. Cornwallis code was introduced.
Lord Wellesley (1798-1805)
Described himself a Bengal tiger.
Created the Madras Presidency after the annexation of the Kingdoms of Tanjore and Carrratie. Introduced the System of Subsidiary Alliance.
The States that signed the alliance were first Hyderabad in 1798 and then Mysore, Tanjore, Awadh, Peshwa, Bhonsle, Srndhia, Jodhpur, Jaipur. Mceheri. Bundi, Bharatpur, Berar.
Signed treaty of Bassein with the Peshwa and fought Second Angl-Maratha War.
Lord Minto (1807-13)
Signed treaty of Amritsar in 1809 between Ranjit Singh and the English.
Sent in 1808. Mission Malcom to Persia and that of Eliphinston to Kabul.
Lord Hastings (1813-24)
He was made Marquess of Hastings due to his success in the Gorkha war of the Anglo Nepalese war.
Signed treaty of Sagauli in 1816 annexed his territories in the Bombay Presidency after the third Anglo-Maratha War (1818).
Introduction of Ryotwari Settlement in Madras Presidency by governor, Thomas Munro (1820). Mahalwari (Village Community) System of land revenue was made in North-West province by James Thomson.
Lord Amherst (1824-28)
Received by the Mughal emperor (Akbar II) on terms of equality in 1827.
Signed treaty of Yandaboo in 1826 with lower Burma or Pegu by which British merchants were allowed to settle in southern coast of Burma and Rangoon.
Lord Willian Bentinck (1828-35)
First Governor General of India by Government of India Act 1833. Known as benevolent Governor General.
Banned practice of sati in 1829,suppressed Thugs in 1830 (military operation led by William Sleeman).
Banned female infanticide. Created the Province of Agra in 1834.
Land Revenue Settlement in North
English was to be Court language In Higher Court but Persian continued in Lower Courts.
The regulation of 1833 on land revenue settlement by Mertins Bird (called father of Land Revenue Settlement in North).
Use of fields maps and filed registers were prescribed for the first time.
Inquiry into titles of Inam lands 1830 annexation of Cachar took place
Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835-36)
Abolished restriction on press.
He was called 'Liberator of Press.
Lord Auckland (1836-42)
Tripartite Treaty was signed between the company, Ranjit Singh and Shah Shuja.
First Afghan War started Mandavi State was annexed.
Lord Ellenborough (1842-44)
Annexation of Sind to British Empire (1843).
Charles Napier was replaced by Major Outram as the President in Sind.
Lord Dalhousie (1848-56)
Introduced the policy of ' Doctrine of Lapse' or 'Law of Escheat' which postulated that Indian states having no natural heir would be annexed to the British Empire.
The Indian states thus annexed were Satara (1848) Jaitpur and Sambhalpur (1849), Baghat(1850), Udaipur(1852), Jhansi (1853)and Nagpur(1854).
Introduced Wood's dispatch known as the Magna Carta of English education in India prepared by Charles Wood the President of the Board of Control in 1854.
Development of railways-laid
Boosted up the development of railways-laid the first railway line in 1853 from Bombay to Thane and second from Calcutta to Raniganj.
Gave a great impetus to Post and Telegraph.
Telegraph lines were laid (first line from Calcutta to Agra).
Organised a separate Public Works Department by divesting the military board of this power.
Lord Canning (1856-62)
Revolt of 1857,Queen Victoria's Proclamation and passing of the Indian Act of 1858.
Doctrine of Lapse started by Lord Dalhousie was withdrawn in 1859.
Foundation of the Universities of Calcutta Bombay and Madras in 1857.
Indigo revolt in Bengal in 1859-60.
Lord Elgin (1862-63)
Supressed the Wahabi Movement Famine Commission was constituted.
Followed a policy of rigid non interference in Afghanistan called ' Palicy of Masterly inactivity".
Set up High Courts in Calcutta Bombay and Madras (1865).
Lord Mayo (1864-72)
Wahabi and Kuka Movement was active.
Mayo was murdered.
Lord Lytton (1876-80)
Passing of the Royal Title Act of 1876 and the assumption of the title empress on India ( Qaiser-i-hind) by Queen Victoria.
Holding of Delhi Durbar in 1877.
Passing of the Arms Act of 1878.
Policy of Masterly inactivity towards Afghanistan Was replaced by forward policy.
Lord Ripon (1880-84)
Passing of the First Factory Act in 1881 for the welfare of child labour.
Repeal of Vernacular Press Act in 1882.
Foundation of Local self government ( 1882), passing of Local self government acts in various Provinces during the period 1883-84.
Holding of first decennial and regular census in 1881, which put the total population at 254 million.
Lord Dufferin (1884-88)
Foundation of Indian National Congress.
Third Anglo-Burmese war. In 1886, upper Burma was annexed. Aitchison Committee.
Commented on the Congress being a microscopic minority.
Lord Lansdowne (1888-94)
Passed the Age of Consent Act in 1891 which forbade marriage of gut below 12.
In 1891, Second Factory Act was passed.
In 1892, Indian Council Act passed.
In 1893, Dufand Mission was sent to Kabul.
Lord Elgin II (1894-99)
Famine in part of Rajasthan-Lyall Commission appointed to look into the cause of famines.
Lord Curzon (1899-1905)
Creation of a new Province called the North-West Frontier Province.
Appointment of Police Commission under Sir Andrew Frazer to inquire into the Police Administration in 1902-03.
It recommended enhancement in salaries and creation of a Department of Criminal Intelligence.
Appointment of Universities Commission in 1902 under Sir Thomas Releigh and passing of Indian Universities Act 1904.
Lord Minto ll (1905-10)
S.P. Sinha was appointed a member of Governor General's Council Act of 1909.
In 1906, Arundale Committee on Political reforms submitted its report.
Lord Hardinge (1910-16)
Coronation durbar in 1911 at Delhi in honor of George V. A separate state of Bihar and Orissa was created in 1911.
A bomb was thrown as he was entering Delhi at Chandini Chowk.
Capital Shifted to Delhi in 1911, In 1912 Islington Committee on Civil Services.
Lord Reading (1921-26)
Foundation of Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh by K B. Hedge var at Nagpur in 1925.
Beginning of Indianisation of the officers cadre of the Indian Army.
Railway Budget was separated from General Budget in 1921.
Lord Irwin (1926-31)
Popularly known as Christian Viceroy.
Appointment of the Indian States Commission under Harcourt Butler ( 1927) to recommend measures for the establishment of better relations between the Indian States and the Central government.
Royal Commission on Agriculture constituted in 1927.
Deepavali declaration (1929) that India would be granted dominion status in due Course.
Gandhi leaves for London to participate in Second Round Table Conference.
Lord Willingdon (1931-36)
Communal award in 1932.
Third Round Table Conference in 1932. White Paper on political reforms in India was published in 1933.
Burma and Aden were separated from the British Empire in 1935. Orissa, Bihar and Sind were made new States.
Lord Linlithgow (1936-43)
August offer by the Viceroy in which he declared the dominion status as the ultimate goal of British policy in India.
At its Haripura Session (1939), Congress declared Poorna Swaraj, ideal to cover native states and British India.
In 1940, individual Civil Disobedience movement.
In 1942, Cripps Mission came. C. Raj gopalchan formula proposed.
Lord Wavell (1943-47)
Wavell Plan, Shimla Conference.
Congress represented by Maulana Azad. RIN mutiny (1946).
Interim Government has formed (September 2, 1946).
Prime Minister of Britian Clement Atlee announced independence of India by June 1948 (February 20,1947) Cabinet mission (1946). 16th August, 1946, Muslim League begins 'Direct Action Day'.
Lord Mountbatten (1947-48)
Earlier proposed plan Balkhan i.e., total dismemberment of the Indian territory, but soon left the idea.
Made it clear to the princely States that they shall not be granted separate independence and they will have to join either India or Pakistan.
His plan to make India free on August 15, 1947 is also known as June 3rd plan.
C. Rajagopalchari (1948-50)
Fitst Indian Governor General.
British Governors
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