Shah Jahan

Shah Jahan (A.D. 1628-1658)

Shah Jahan was proclaimed emperor at Agra. His mother was Jagat Gasain and his childhood name was Khurram. He married Arjumand Danu Begum (Mumtaj Mahal).

He destroyed Portuguese settlement at Hoogly.  The Port of Daulatabad was occupied by Mahabat Khan, Viceroy of Deccan. Under a treaty with Bijapur and Golconda in 1636 Mughal suzerainty was established.

In 1638 Ali Mardan Khan, the Persian Governor of Qandhar, surrendered the fort to the Mughal government of Kabul. Shahjahan secured Kandahar and immediately fortified it. But Persia wrested Kandahar from the Mughals in 1649. Shahjahan sent three expeditions to recover Kandahar, but all failed. This is called the permanent loss of 'Qandhar'.

Last 8 years of his life were very painful, as rumor of Shah Jahan’s death opened a war of succession among his sons. There was a brutal war of succession am his four sons Dara, Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad. Dara was his favourite but Aurangzeb was the ablest. Combined forces of Aurangzeb and Murad defeated Dara’s army under Raja Jaswant Singh near Dharmat (Ujjain).  Again Dara was decisively defeated at Samugarh. Ultimately, Aurangzeb took control and Shah Jahan was made the prisoner in the Agra being looked after by his daughter, Jahan Ara, till his death in 1666.  Shah Jahan was placed under arrest by Aurangzeb in the Agra-fort where he died in 1666.

  • Foreign travellers like Bernier, Travernier and Manucci have left accounts about his reign.
  • Moti Masjid (Agra), Red Fort (Delhi), Jama Masjid (Delhi) and above all the superb Taj Mahal, the mausoleum of his beloved Mumtaj Mahal are his famous contributions.
  • His reign is considered the ‘Golden Age’ of the Mughal Empire

Related Questions

1. Consider the following statements :
1. Humayun regained his Delhi throne from Sher Shah in 1555
2. Humayun defeated Hemu at the second battle of Panipat in 1556
Which of these statements is/are correct? -- View Answer

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3. Akbar wanted to establish friendship with the Rajputs because : -- View Answer

4. Match the following :
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C. Jahangir's Mausoleum 3. Sikandara
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Below options are given in A B C D order. -- View Answer

5. Sher Shah died while fighting in : -- View Answer

6. Match the following :
A. Second Battle of Panipat 1. Decline of Vijayanagar
B. Second Battle of Tarain 2. British rule in India
C. Battle of Talikota 3. Turkish rule in India
D. Battle of Plassey 4. Mughal rule in India
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Below options are given in A B C D order. -- View Answer

7. Hindustan is a country of few charms. Its people have no good looks..'
Which Mughal king had recorded this in his memoirs? -- View Answer

8. The first Indian ruler to organise Haj pilgrimage at the expense of the state was : -- View Answer

9. Who amongst the following lost the kingdom in Hindustan but retrieved it after 15 years in exile? -- View Answer

10. The coin rupia was first issued by : -- View Answer


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