Shah Jahan

Shah Jahan (A.D. 1628-1658)

Shah Jahan was proclaimed emperor at Agra. His mother was Jagat Gasain and his childhood name was Khurram. He married Arjumand Danu Begum (Mumtaj Mahal).

He destroyed Portuguese settlement at Hoogly.  The Port of Daulatabad was occupied by Mahabat Khan, Viceroy of Deccan. Under a treaty with Bijapur and Golconda in 1636 Mughal suzerainty was established.

In 1638 Ali Mardan Khan, the Persian Governor of Qandhar, surrendered the fort to the Mughal government of Kabul. Shahjahan secured Kandahar and immediately fortified it. But Persia wrested Kandahar from the Mughals in 1649. Shahjahan sent three expeditions to recover Kandahar, but all failed. This is called the permanent loss of 'Qandhar'.

Last 8 years of his life were very painful, as rumor of Shah Jahan’s death opened a war of succession among his sons. There was a brutal war of succession am his four sons Dara, Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad. Dara was his favourite but Aurangzeb was the ablest. Combined forces of Aurangzeb and Murad defeated Dara’s army under Raja Jaswant Singh near Dharmat (Ujjain).  Again Dara was decisively defeated at Samugarh. Ultimately, Aurangzeb took control and Shah Jahan was made the prisoner in the Agra being looked after by his daughter, Jahan Ara, till his death in 1666.  Shah Jahan was placed under arrest by Aurangzeb in the Agra-fort where he died in 1666.

  • Foreign travellers like Bernier, Travernier and Manucci have left accounts about his reign.
  • Moti Masjid (Agra), Red Fort (Delhi), Jama Masjid (Delhi) and above all the superb Taj Mahal, the mausoleum of his beloved Mumtaj Mahal are his famous contributions.
  • His reign is considered the ‘Golden Age’ of the Mughal Empire

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Which Mughal king had recorded this in his memoirs? -- View Answer

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