Resistance to British rule-Tribal Movements

Chuars Uprising (Midnapur. Bengal in 1766-1772 and in 1795-1816): Bengal famine 1760, enhanced revenue demand and economic distress.  British suppressed the revolt through use of force.

Bhils Uprising (Khandesh in 1817-19 1825, 1831, 1847): It rose against agrarian hardships and apprehensions. It was finally suppressed by the British.

Ahom Revolt (Assam in 1828-33): Led by Gomandhar Konwar against the attempts made to incorporate Ahom territory. British adopted a pacific policy and handed upper Assam to Purander Singh Narendra. 

Khasi Uprising (Khasi Hills-Assam and Meghalaya in 1829-32). Led by Tirath Singh ruler of Nunklow and Barmanik against the occupation of Jaintia and Garo Hill areas by the British. The movement was suppressed in 1832.

Kol Uprising (Chotanagpur in 1831-32): Led by Buddho Bhagat, the Kols resented transfer of land to outsiders - Muslims and Sikhs. Order was restored after large military operation. 

Santhal Uprising (Rajmahal Hills-Sandra] Pargana Bihar in 1855-56): Led by Sidhu and Kanhu against the illtreatment at the hands of revenue officers, oppression of police and extortion of landlords and moneylenders. It was brought under control through harsh British military operation.

Naikdas Revolt (Punch MahaIs-Gujarat in 1858-59 and 1868): Led by Rup Singh and Joria Bhagat against the ban on use of forest for grazing and timber. They also wanted to establish their own laws 'Dharma Raj'.

Kachanagas Uprising (Cachar-Assam in 1882): Led by Sambhudham against the British activities in their areas. They attacked the whites but were suppressed.

Munda Rebellion (Ulgulan) (Chotanagpur in 1899-1900), Led by Birsa Munda against the erosion of their Khuntkatti land system, recruitment of forced labour (Beth-Begari) and against the activities of the Christian missionaries. They attacked churches and police stations. Birsa Munda was taken prisoner by the British and the movement was suppressed.

Bhils Uprising (Baswara, Suthi Dungarpur-Rajasthan in 1913): Led by the Govind Guru, it began as a temperance and purification movement, it developed into movement for Bhil Raj. Suppressed by British armed intervention.

Oraons Uprising (Chotanagpur in 1914-15): Led by Jatra Bhagat and Tana Bhagat for monotheism, abstention from meat, liquor and tribal dances and return to shitting cultivation.  It developed links with Gandhian nationalism but was suppressed by the British.

Kukis Uprising (Manipur in 1917-19): Led by Rani Gaidinliu, it was resentment against recruitment of forced labour and ban on shifting cultivation. It was finally suppressed. 


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1. Indus Valley Civilization
2. Vedic Age-The Aryans
3. Religious movements-Buddhism and Jainism
4. Bhakti movement
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6. Advent of Europeans
7. Expansion of British Supremacy
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