Post Mughal-Autonomous states

Coming of Europeans

     The weakening of central political structure of the Mughal empire and erosion of its military strength created some sort of a political vacuum in India tempting ambitious subahdars and powerful regional chiefs to carve out semi-independent or independent principalities for themselves. Thus the eighteenth century saw the rise of a large number of autonomous states on the debris of the Mughal empire such as Bengal, Awadh, Hyderabad, Mysore, Marathas, Jats, Sikhs, Rajputs etc.


     Murshid Quli Khan (1717 - 1727 A D): He was appointed as Bengal’s Diwan by Aurangzeb (1700), as Naib Subedar (1713) and later Subedar (1717) by Farrukh Siyar, though he continued to pay tribute to Mughal Emperor. Orissa was attached to Bengal in 1719 by Farrukh Siyar.  Quli Khan transferred his capital from Dhaka to Murshidabad. He established a sound administrative system; gave taccavi loans to the peasants. He gave equal opportunities of employment to Muslims and Hindus.

     Shuja-ud-din (1727 - 1739 A.D.): He was son-in-law of Murshid Quli Khan. Bihar was attached to Bengal in 1733 by emperor Muhammad Shah. Now onwards the Nawabs of Bengal ruled over Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.

     Sarfraj Khan (1739 - 1740 A.D.): Son of Shuja, he was murdered by Aliverdi Khan, the Deputy Governor of Bihar.

      Aliverdi Khan (1740 - 1756 A.D.): He prevented the English people from misusing their privileges and prohibited English and French companies from fortifying their factories at Calcutta and Chandranagar respectively. During his reign there was a continuous incursion of Marathas and he had to pay ‘chauth’ to Raghuji Bhonsle.

      Siraj-ud-Daulah (1756 - 1757 A.D.): Siraj-ud-daulah wrote a letter to the British Governor of Calcutta to demolish additional fortifications and also to stop giving support to Shaukat Jang. The British refused to comply with his orders and Siraj seized the factory at Kasim Bazaar and Calcutta.  On this occasion the ‘Black Hole Episode‘ happened on 20th June, 1756. The description of Black Hole Episode was given by Holwell. Arrival of a strong contingent from Madras under Colonel Clive and Admiral Watson and their plunder of Hoogli and recovery of Calcutta led to a treaty between Siraj and the British.  According to Treaty of Alinagar, Siraj recognised their previleges. Soon after the British organised a conspiracy with some leading men of the Nawab’s court (Mir Jafer - the mir bakshi; Manikchand - officer-in-Icharge of Calcutta, Jagat Seth - the famous banker of Bengal; Rai Durlabh and Khadim Khan - important nobles, etc).  

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2. Vedic Age-The Aryans
3. Religious movements-Buddhism and Jainism
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5. Mughal Empire
6. Advent of Europeans
7. Expansion of British Supremacy
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