Foreign travellers

Ibn Batutah: African traveller, came to India in Sept 1333; was sent as Sultan Mohammad Shah Tughlaq's ambassador to China in July 1342.

Shaikh Azari: The poet of Isfarayin in Khurasan Shaikh Azari, and Maulana Sharf-ud-din Mazandarani came to the court of Ahmad Shah (1422-1435), the Bahmani ruler of Bidar.

Althanasius Nikitin: Travelled the Bahmani kingdom during the years 1470 to 1474 in the reign of Mohammad III great grandson of Ahmad Shah.

Nicolo Conti: An Italian traveller, visited Vijayanagar during the reign of Deva Raya I (around 1420).

Abdur Razzak: An envoy from Persia, visited Vijayanagar during the reign of Deva Raya II.

Duarte Barbosa: Was present in India during the period 1516-1518.

Domingo Paes: A Portuguese, travelled Vijayanagar Empire. 

Mauhan: Visited Bengal in A.D. 1406.

Barthema: Came to India during the early part of the 16th century (1503 - 1508)

Leeds: An Englishman; entered Akbars court as a jeweller. 

Ralf Fitch, Newbery and Beeds: They visited Akbar's court at Fatehpur Sikri in 1585.

Terry and Willian Finch: Visited Jahangir’s court.

Peter Mundy: An English merchant-traveller, visited India during Shah Jahan's reign in about 1630 - 1632.

Tavernier: Visited India six times during the reign of Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb and wrote his work "Six voyages".

Manucci: Witnessed the reign of five Mughal emperors from Shah Jahan to Farrukhsiyar (I658-1717). He served in the army of Dara Shikoh and Raja Jai Singh and saw Shivaji during Jaisingh's campaign against the former.

Bernier: Served in Aurangzeb's retinue.

Gemelli-Careri: The Italian Physician who visited India during the reign of Aurangzeb, saw him in 1695, when he was 77 years old.

Francisco Pelsaert: He was the Chief of the Dutch factory at Agra in the time of Jahangir. 

European Travellers During Mughal Period

  • Father Anthony Monserrate: He came during Akbar’s reign. His travellogue contains description of Akbar's court, his personality and also description of many cities.
  • Ralph Fitch: Came during Akbar's reign. First European who wrote about dress and customs of Indians.
  • William Hawkins: Came during Jahangir’s period. He was given the title of Khan by Jahangir.
  • John Jourdain: Came during Jahangir's reign. He described Agra in detail.
  • Nicholas Downton: Came during Jahangir’s reign. Praised Sati system.
  • Sir Thomas Roe: He was given a firman byJahangir which assured the British of similar hospitality.
  • Edward Terry: He was a chaplain: described Mughal coins and camp.
  • Pietro-della Valle: Came during Jahangir’s reign. He was an Italian.
  • Francisco Paelsart: Came during Jahangir's reign. He was a Dutch Factor.
  • Jean Baptist Travernier: Came during Shah Jahan’s region. He was a diamond merchant.
  • Peter Mundy: Describe the famine during Shah Jahan’s reign.
  • Rancois Bernier: Described the war of succession and execution of Dara.
  • Manucci: He joined Dara's entourage.
  • William Noris: He was envoy of East India Company to‘ Aurangzeb's Court. 

Related Questions

1. Match the following :
Structures Places
A. Akbar's Mausoleum 1. Lahore
B. Gola Mendola 2. Chittorgarh
C. Jahangir's Mausoleum 3. Sikandara
D. Vijayastambha 4. Udaipur
Below options are given in A B C D order. -- View Answer

2. Sher Shah died while fighting in : -- View Answer

3. Match the following :
A. Second Battle of Panipat 1. Decline of Vijayanagar
B. Second Battle of Tarain 2. British rule in India
C. Battle of Talikota 3. Turkish rule in India
D. Battle of Plassey 4. Mughal rule in India
5. Slave dynasty in India
Below options are given in A B C D order. -- View Answer

4. Hindustan is a country of few charms. Its people have no good looks..'
Which Mughal king had recorded this in his memoirs? -- View Answer

5. The first Indian ruler to organise Haj pilgrimage at the expense of the state was : -- View Answer

6. Who amongst the following lost the kingdom in Hindustan but retrieved it after 15 years in exile? -- View Answer

7. The coin rupia was first issued by : -- View Answer

8. Who was the ruler of medieval India who is credited with the building of the Grand Trunk Road? -- View Answer

9. Since ages the women of Maharashtra have proved themselves equal to men on battlefield. Famous Chandbibi of Ahmednagar fought to protect her kingdom against : -- View Answer

10. Who was the Afghan ruler of India whose administrative system was emulated by the British? -- View Answer


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1. Indus Valley Civilization
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3. The Mauryan Empire and Sangam Age
4. Post Mauryan Period
5. Guptas and Post Gupta
6. The invasion of Arabs
7. Mughal Empire
8. Advent of Europeans
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Related Articles

1. Akbar
2. Aurangzeb
3. Babur
4. Humayun
5. Jahangir
6. Mughal Administration
7. Mughal Culture
8. Shah Jahan
9. The Sur Empire (Sher Shah)