Foreign travellers

Ibn Batutah: African traveller, came to India in Sept 1333; was sent as Sultan Mohammad Shah Tughlaq's ambassador to China in July 1342.

Shaikh Azari: The poet of Isfarayin in Khurasan Shaikh Azari, and Maulana Sharf-ud-din Mazandarani came to the court of Ahmad Shah (1422-1435), the Bahmani ruler of Bidar.

Althanasius Nikitin: Travelled the Bahmani kingdom during the years 1470 to 1474 in the reign of Mohammad III great grandson of Ahmad Shah.

Nicolo Conti: An Italian traveller, visited Vijayanagar during the reign of Deva Raya I (around 1420).

Abdur Razzak: An envoy from Persia, visited Vijayanagar during the reign of Deva Raya II.

Duarte Barbosa: Was present in India during the period 1516-1518.

Domingo Paes: A Portuguese, travelled Vijayanagar Empire. 

Mauhan: Visited Bengal in A.D. 1406.

Barthema: Came to India during the early part of the 16th century (1503 - 1508)

Leeds: An Englishman; entered Akbars court as a jeweller. 

Ralf Fitch, Newbery and Beeds: They visited Akbar's court at Fatehpur Sikri in 1585.

Terry and Willian Finch: Visited Jahangir’s court.

Peter Mundy: An English merchant-traveller, visited India during Shah Jahan's reign in about 1630 - 1632.

Tavernier: Visited India six times during the reign of Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb and wrote his work "Six voyages".

Manucci: Witnessed the reign of five Mughal emperors from Shah Jahan to Farrukhsiyar (I658-1717). He served in the army of Dara Shikoh and Raja Jai Singh and saw Shivaji during Jaisingh's campaign against the former.

Bernier: Served in Aurangzeb's retinue.

Gemelli-Careri: The Italian Physician who visited India during the reign of Aurangzeb, saw him in 1695, when he was 77 years old.

Francisco Pelsaert: He was the Chief of the Dutch factory at Agra in the time of Jahangir. 

European Travellers During Mughal Period

  • Father Anthony Monserrate: He came during Akbar’s reign. His travellogue contains description of Akbar's court, his personality and also description of many cities.
  • Ralph Fitch: Came during Akbar's reign. First European who wrote about dress and customs of Indians.
  • William Hawkins: Came during Jahangir’s period. He was given the title of Khan by Jahangir.
  • John Jourdain: Came during Jahangir's reign. He described Agra in detail.
  • Nicholas Downton: Came during Jahangir’s reign. Praised Sati system.
  • Sir Thomas Roe: He was given a firman byJahangir which assured the British of similar hospitality.
  • Edward Terry: He was a chaplain: described Mughal coins and camp.
  • Pietro-della Valle: Came during Jahangir’s reign. He was an Italian.
  • Francisco Paelsart: Came during Jahangir's reign. He was a Dutch Factor.
  • Jean Baptist Travernier: Came during Shah Jahan’s region. He was a diamond merchant.
  • Peter Mundy: Describe the famine during Shah Jahan’s reign.
  • Rancois Bernier: Described the war of succession and execution of Dara.
  • Manucci: He joined Dara's entourage.
  • William Noris: He was envoy of East India Company to‘ Aurangzeb's Court. 

Related Questions

1. Match the following:
A. Battle of Haldighati 1. Babur
B. Battle of Bilgram 2. Akbar
C. Second Battle of Panipat 3. Humayun
D. Battle of Khanua 4. Jahangir
The below options are given in A B C D order. -- View Answer

2. Ibadat Khana, where learned men of all religions discussed religious issues during the time of Akbar, is a famous structure in : -- View Answer

3. The word Mansab stood for : -- View Answer

4. Which of the following are true with regard to Akbar?
I. He abolished Jaziya and Pilgrim Tax in 1564 and 1563 A.D. respectively
II. He erected the 'Ibadat Khana' for holding religious discussions
III. His Din-i-Ilahi was a code of social conduct
IV. He got the Khutba to be read in his name in 1574 A.D. -- View Answer

5. Which of the following buildings is not situated at Fatehpur Sikri? -- View Answer

6. Which of the following was/were steps taken by Sher Shah to promote trade and commerce?
1. Making travel safe for traders
2.Building a new highway between Delhi and Warangal
3. Abolishing int3rnal duties and levying taxes only at the points of import and sale
4. Building sarals along roadways -- View Answer

7. Sher Shah is well known for his administrative skill, especially his : -- View Answer

8. The Sarak-i-Azam which ran from the Indus to Sonargaon (in Bangladesh) was built by : -- View Answer

9. Who among the following Indian rulers was a contemporary of Akbar? -- View Answer

10. Consider the following statements :
1. Humayun regained his Delhi throne from Sher Shah in 1555
2. Humayun defeated Hemu at the second battle of Panipat in 1556
Which of these statements is/are correct? -- View Answer


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More Questions and Answers

1. Indus Valley Civilization
2. Mahajanapadas-The Magadha empire
3. The Mauryan Empire and Sangam Age
4. Post Mauryan Period
5. Guptas and Post Gupta
6. The invasion of Arabs
7. Mughal Empire
8. Advent of Europeans
9. Indian National Movement

Related Articles

1. Akbar
2. Aurangzeb
3. Babur
4. Humayun
5. Jahangir
6. Mughal Administration
7. Mughal Culture
8. Shah Jahan
9. The Sur Empire (Sher Shah)