Babur (A.D. 1526-1530):

Babur was the founder of Mughal Empire in India. His real name was Zaahirud-din-Muhammad Babur. His father was a Chieftain of Fargana in Central in Asia. He was a descendant of Amir Timur, The Turk (Male line) and Changiz Khan (Female line). His family belonged to the Chagatai section of the Turkish race and was commonly known as Mughals. He became the ruler of Fargana in Transoxiana at the age of 14 after the death of his father. He was eager to recover Samarkand from his uncle. He won the city twice but could not retain it and was forced to move towards Kabul, which he conquered in 1504 and then turned his eyes towards lndia.

Battles of Babur:

First Battle of Panipat (20 April 1526):

Taking advantage of the anarchical condition prevailing under the Lodi’s, Babur marched towards India and defeated  lbrahim Lodi in the first battle of Panipat. The battle virtually marked the end of Delhi Sultanate and beginning of the Mughal rule in lndia. Though the battle of Panipat brought the area around Delhi and Agra under Babur’s control.  It was still not decisive in political field.

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During Lodi reign, the governor of Lahore, Daulat Khan Lodi father of Dilawar Khan Lodi invited Babur to invade India due to disaffection with Ibrahim. Daulat Khan's invitation to Babur to India led to the battle of Panipat in 1526, where Ibrahim loadi was defeated. This marked the end of Delhi sultanate and Babur founded Mughal Empire in India which ruled India for next two centuries. One letter changed the history of India

Battle of Khanwa (1527):

The establishment of the new empire in the lndo-Gangatic valley by Babur was a threat to Rana Sanga’s ambition, who himself was intending to enlarge his dominions towards the valley. The growing conflict led to a battle between Babur and Rana Sanga, the most powerful prince of the time. It went in Babur’s favour. Rana Sanga was injured badly but was carried away to safety by his men in March 1527.

Battle of Chanderi (1528):

Babur followed up his successes at Khanwa and led a campaign against Medini Rai of Chanderi Malwa.  Chanderi was captured after Raiput defenders had died fighting to the last man and their women performed Jouhar.

Battle of Ghagra (May 1529):

Babur met the allied forces of Bihar and Bengal (under Nusrat Shah) on the bank of river Ghagra near the junction with Ganga at Patna and inflicted crushing defeat on them.Thus with the help of these battles Babur extended his dominions from the Oxus to Ghagra and from the Himalayas to Gwalior.

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After the Kushans, Babur was the first to bring Kabul and Kandahar into the lndian Empire, which provided stability since it was the staging post of invasions of lndia. This helped in promoting trade since these towns were the starting points of caravans meant for China in the east and Mediterranean in the west.

Facts About Babur:

  • Babur died at Agra on 26 December 1530.
  • His body was first laid at Arambagh in Agra, but afterwards sent to Kabul according to his declared wish.
  • Babur successes in India was mainly due to Ottoman (Runci) device of warfare and use of gun powder for the first time in India.
  • Babur had a refined test of literary activities. He could compose beautiful poems in Persian and was a master of pure and unaffected style in his native Turkey.
  • He wrote his own biography “Tuzuk-i-Baburi' in Turkish.
  • Tuzak-i-Baburi was translated into Persian by Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan. 

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Baburnama, autobiography of Babur alternatively known as Tuzk-e Babri is the book with the memoirs of Babur (1483–1530). This autobiographical work was written in the Chagatai language and was translated to Persian by a Mughal courtier, Abdul Rahim during Akbar's reign.

Related Questions

1. On the wall of which of the following buildings built by Shah Jahan, the Persian couplet "If there is a paradise on earth, it is this, it is this, it is this" is inscribed? -- View Answer

2. Which of the following is similar to the Taj Mahal in construction? -- View Answer

3. The most famous musician at the court of Akbar was Tansen. His original name was : -- View Answer

4. The mausoleum of sher shah is at : -- View Answer

5. Buland Darwaza, built by Akbar, is to commemorate the victory of : -- View Answer

6. Buland Darwaza is situated in : -- View Answer

7. Which of the following forts was not built by Akbar ? -- View Answer

8. Purana Quila was constructed during the reign of : -- View Answer

9. The tome of Babar is at : -- View Answer

10. When did Vasco da Gama come to India ? -- View Answer

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