Aurangzeb (AJ). 1658-1707)

Aurangzeb first defeated the imperial army in the Battle of Dharmatt and then defeated a force led by Dara in the Battle of Samugarh. Thereafter, he entered Agra and crowned himself with the title of ‘Alamgir’(conqueror of the world). He crowned himself as emperor at Delhi in 1658. but it was only after the final defeat of Dara Shikoh at Deorai that he celebrated his coronation in 1659. His reign can be broadly divided into two 25 year periods. First in the affairs of North India when the Maratha power under Shivaji emerged, and second marked by his preoccupations about the affairs of Deccan.

Conquests of Aurangzeb

In 1675, the ninth Sikh Guru, Teg Bahadur was seized and taken to Delhi where he was beheaded. In 1679, over the question of accession in Marwar, Aurangzeb interfered and defeated the Rathors. Their country was occupied. Later Udaipur was also occupied and the Rana of Mewar made peace with the invaders. The Mughal conquests reached the territorial climax during his reign, as Bijapur(1686) and Golconda (1687) were annexed to the Mughal empire. The Mughal empire stretched from Kashmir in the north to Jinji in the south, from the Hindukush in west to Chittagong in the east. Because of his military conquests, the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent, and the largest single state ever known in India from the dawn of history to the rise of British Power was formed. In his rule, various rebellions took place Jat peasantry at Mathura, Satnami peasantry in Punjab and Bundelas in Bundelkhand.

Reign of Aurangzeb

  • Aurangzeb and South: According to the ‘Treaty of Purandhar ‘ between Shivaii and Jai Singh (The Viceroy of Deccan), Shivaji paid a visit to Agra, but being dissatisfied with the reception, he secretly escaped. In 1689. Shambha Ji, the eldest son of Shivaji was captured and beheaded. 
  • In l704, Marathas had to evacuate the Fort of Jangira, this was his last triumph in the South.
  • Bijapur and Golconda were occupied in 1686 and 1687 respectively.
  • In his religious policy he adopted stern methods. In 1659. he forbade the construction of new temples and in 1664, he prohibited the repair of old temples. In 1668, Hindu religious fans were forbidden.  In 1679, the Jizya was reimposed. Also, Nauraj, singing in the court, and the practice of ‘jharokha-darshan’ were banned. Also forbade inscription of Kalima (the Muslim credo) on the coins.
  • He abolished the practice of imprinting of Qaliva on the coins, the observance of Nauroz, the practice of weighing the emperor in silver coins and the custom of Tikka.
  • He built 'Bibi Ka Makbara’ or the tomb of his queen Rabaud-Durani at Aurangabad, Mott Masjid within Red Fort (Delhi) and ther Jami or Badshahi Mosque at Lahore. 
  • Patronized the greatest digest of Muslim law in India, Fatwa-i-Alamgiri. Mutasib(regulator of moral conduct) was appointed.
  • He was called ‘Darvesh’ or a ‘Zinda pir’

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