Anglo Maratha wars

First Anglo-Maratha war (1775-82):

        The primary cause of the first Anglo-Maratha War was the interference of the English government of Bombay in the internal affairs of the Marathas. Madhav Rao was succeeded by his brother Narain Rao, but his uncle Raghunatha Rao wanted to become Peshwa and got him murdered. The great Maratha chiefs took up the cause of Madhav Rao Narain, the posthumous son of Narain Rao. Raghunatha Rao felt weak and approached the Bombay government for help. The Bombay government made the Treaty of Surat with Raghunath Rao. The Calcutta council rejected this Treaty and treaty of Purandhar was made in 1775.

      In 1780, the fortress of Gwalior was taken over by Major Popham. Scindhia wanted to make peace with English. At this time the English were also fighting with Haider Ali of Mysore.  Therefore Hastings signed the Treaty of Salbai in 1782, which gave British 20 years of peace.

Second Anglo-Maratha war (1803-05):

     The Treaty of Bassein was signed between the last Peshwa of the Marathas Baji Rao-II and the English in 1802. By this treaty, the paramount British influence was established at Poona. For the Marathas Treaty of Bassein was nothing short of surrender of national honour. Scindhia and Bhonsle were asked by the British to withdraw their troops north of the Narmada river, but they refused. It led to war and defeat of combined force of Schindia and Bhonsle. Wellesley’s effort to control the Holkar failed. He was therefore recalled from India and company made peace with Holkar in 1806, by the Treaty of Rajghat.

Third Anglo-Maratha war (1817-18):

     The Marathas made a desperate last attempt to regain their independence in 1817. The war began when Lord Hastings moved against the Pindaris. By careful moves the English forced humiliating treaties on the Raja of Nagpur, the Peshwa and Schindia. Daulat Rao Schindia, Appa Sahib and Malhar Rao Holkar-Il raised their arms. But they were defeated by the British. The Maratha confederacy was completely destroyed. To satisfy the Maratha pride, a small kingdom of Satara was created. Thus the work of Lord Hastings was accomplished in 1818. Now the British became the supreme and paramount authority in India. 


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